Stabilization Policies and Growth

  • Stabilization Policies and Growth

    Public policy can affect the economy’s output, price level, and level of employment, both in the short run and in the long run . Students should learn to analyze the impacts of fiscal policy and monetary policy on aggregate demand and on aggregate supply, as well as on the economy’s output and price level, both in the short run and in the long run . It is also important to understand how an economy responds to a short- run shock and adjusts to long-run equilibrium in the absence of any public policy actions.

    With both monetary and fiscal policies now incorporated in the analysis of aggregate demand and aggregate supply, an understanding of the interactions between the two is essential . Students should also examine the economic effects of government budget deficits, including crowding out; consider the issues involved in determining the burden of the national debt; and explore the relationships between deficits, interest rates, and inflation . The course should distinguish between the short-run and long-run impacts of monetary and fiscal policies and trace the short- run and long-run effects of supply shocks . Short-run and long-run Phillips curves are introduced to help students gain an understanding of the inflation-unemployment trade-off and how this trade-off may differ in the short and long run . In this section, the course identifies the causes of inflation and illustrates them by using the aggregate demand and aggregate supply model . A well-rounded course also includes an examination of the significance of expectations, including inflationary expectations.

    The course should introduce the concept and meaning of long-run economic growth and examine how economic growth occurs . Students should understand the role of productivity in raising real output and the standard of living, and the role of investment in human capital formation and physical capital accumulation, research and development, and technical progress in promoting economic growth . Having learned the determinants of growth, students should examine how public policies influence the long-run economic growth of an economy.