The PING))) sensor is a trademark Parallax product that allows for fast and easy object distance detection. The sensor uses and inaudible sonar pulse to detect the distance and object is away from the sensor. This is a great math application as it has to do with waves and it can be used to do calculations on the time it takes the sound to bounce back and forth and how that time can be used to solve for distance.
The robotic applications of the sensor are numerous!! This project makes use of the PING))) as another sensor for object detection. Using the PING))) in conjunction with the IR sensors allows the bot to do better and safer object detection. Like the IR sensors the bot will not have to run into an object before it can make the decision to avoid it.
The code provided comes from the Parallax website but after being tested and tweaked will likely be upgraded to fit the next couple of projects.